Ozark Chinquapin Identification Guide
There is a lot of variation among populations and even individual trees. A single tree will have leaves of of varying size. Leaves are typically 5.5 to 9.5 inches long, and have parallel veins that intersect the tip of long, coarsely serrate teeth. The leaf becomes slightly more broad above the middle portion. Leaves are arranged in an alternate pattern.
Photo above: Front side
Photo above: Back side
Photo above: Teeth
Photo Above: Wild seedling; note alternate leaf pattern
Young trees have smooth, dark grey bark, with silver colored markings. After about 13 years, the bark develops plate-like ridges that are flat and broad, and loosely arranged parallel to one another. The silvery-grey markings remain visible on the ridges of old trees.
Photo above: Bark of 10 year old tree
Photo above: Bark of 13 year old tree (furrows developing)
Photo above: Approximately 60 years old
Below: Click on image to enlarge
Photo above: Large wild Ozark chinquapin in NW Arkansas
Photo above: Top of large wild Ozark chinquapin
Photo above: Small wild tree
Photo above: Tree grown on research plot in open sunlight, 10 years old
Ozark chinquapin will usually begin producing nuts in 4 years.
Each burr contains a single nut approximately 20mm long and 10mm wide. Sometimes, on rare occasion, a tree (due to genetics) is capable of producing more than one nut per burr and will make 3-5.
Photo above: Ozark chinquapin seed size compared to other species
Each individual burr splits down the center forming two sections. Clusters of 5-10 burrs are located slightly back from the end of the branch, unlike most other chestnut species . After it rains the burrs swell and decompose, recycling nutrients into the soil which the tree takes up.
- Flowers from late May-June
- Male and female bisexual catkins
- Wind and insect pollinated
Blooms late May to early June. The trees are monoecious and self-incompatible; they require another tree for pollination. Learn more about Ozark chinquapin wind and insect pollination.
Photo above: Female flowers developing
Chestnuts & chinquapins produce two kinds of flowers, usually at the ends of the branches where they are exposed to full sun, although the Ozark chinquapins produce their flowers on spurs at the sides of the branches. Male catkins produce abundant pollen that is both windborne and carried by insects. The female flowers are prickly involucres with 12 to 18 ovules. The stigmas bristle out of the end of the involucre and are receptive after most of the catkins have bloomed, and remain so for 1 to 2 weeks. Catkins at the of the female flowers delay blooming until the female flowers are receptive.
Twigs & Buds
Twigs are grey, smooth, and stout (thick) with lots of small white pores. Branches of most Castanea rarely continue to grow beyond the flowers, but since Ozark chinquapin female flowers are formed on short spurs, the main branches continue to elongate. Buds are dark brown and blunt.
Report a Tree to the OCF
One of the ways you can help our restoration effort is to help us locate fruiting Ozark chinquapin trees, and report them to the OCF. If you think you have found a tree and would like us to help you make a positive identification, you can send us pictures of the leaves, bark, nuts, and burs along to firstname.lastname@example.org with the words “Tree ID” in the subject line.
Photo credit: Leslie Bost Carter, Ozark Chinquapin Foundation