Historic Range

Natural Range of the  OZARK CHINQUAPIN tree

Distribution of Castanea ozarkensis

Before the blight arrived, the Ozark chinquapin was often described as a dominate species on the north and east facing slopes of the mountains in the Interior Highlands (Palmer, 1926).  The sudden loss of these trees set in motion widespread changes to the ecology of the forest communities they once dominated and had major social and economic impacts on the communities and people they supported. The presence of Ozark chinquapin in Alabama and adjacent states suggest the species may have once had a larger range than it does today. 

The plight of the American chestnut is well known, but the other members of the chestnut genus (in particular the Ozark chinquapin) have been neglected by taxonomists and field biologists and is considered an examaple of  one of the most mistreated and misrepresented Native North American nut trees (Payne et al., 1994).

Map Sources:

Smith, E.B. 1988. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas, 2d ed. AR Literature

Taylor, R.J., and C.E.S. Taylor. 1989. An annotated list of the ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms and flowering plants of Oklahoma. Southeast Oklahoma State University. OK Literature

Thomas, R.D., and C.M. Allen. 1993. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana, vols. 1-3. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Natural Heritage Program, Fort Worth, TX. LA Literature

Thomas, R.D., and C.M. Allen. 1997. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana, vols. 1-3 (Plus updates). Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. LA Literature. Claiborne and Union county LA

Weber, W.R., and W.T. Corcoran. 1993. Atlas of Missouri vascular plants. Unpublished. Southwest Missouri State University and the Missouri Native Plant Society. MO Literature. Stone county, MO

Whetstone, R.D. 1981. Vascular flora and vegetation of the Cumberland Plateau of Alabama. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. AL Literature

Yatskievych, G., and J. Turner. 1990. Catalogue of the flora of Missouri. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 37. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

Bruner, W. E. 1931. The vegetation of Oklahoma. Ecological Monographs 1:99-188.

Duck, L. G., and J. B. Fletcher. 1945. A survey of the game and fur bearing animals of Oklahoma; chapter 2, The game types of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Game and Fish Commission, Division of Wildlife Restoration and Research, Oklahoma City.

Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Fountain, M. S., and J. M. Sweeney. 1985. Ecological assessment of the Roaring Branch Research Natural Area. Research Paper SO-213. USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 15 pp.

Hoagland, B. 2000. The vegetation of Oklahoma: A classification for landscape mapping and conservation planning. The Southwestern Naturalist 45(4):385-420.

Johnson, F. L. 1986b. Woody vegetation of southeastern Leflore County, Oklahoma, in relation to topography. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 66:1-6.

Kreiter, S. D. 1995. Dynamics and spatial pattern of a virgin old-growth hardwood-pine forest in the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma, from 1896 to 1994. Unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Oklahoma, Norman.

Leahy, Mike. Personal communication. Missouri Natural Heritage Database, Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City.

Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

Nelson, P. 2010. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Conservation, Jefferson City.

Nelson, P. W. 1985. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Jefferson City. 197 pp. Revised edition, 1987.

Rice, E. L. 1963. Vegetation of Beavers Bend State Park, Oklahoma. Geological Survey Guide Book 9:39-45.

Rice, E. L., and W. T. Penfound. 1959. The upland forests of Oklahoma. Ecology 40:593-608.

Smith, S., D. Zollner, and S. Simon. 2000. Reassessment of Roaring Branch Research Natural Area. Unpublished technical report. The Nature Conservancy, Arkansas Field Office, Little Rock.

The Arboreal Flora of Arkansas, pg. 18, Hampstead county, Arkansas

George P. Johnson, Revision of Castanea Sect. Balanocastanon (Fagacae), The Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard, Vol 69, Number 1, 1988. Lawrence, Winston, Walker, Tuscaloosa, Bibb counties in Alabama (page 44)

https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CAPUO

http://www.tropicos.org/NamePage.aspx?nameid=13100251&tab=specimens

Annual Report of the State Horticultural Society of Missouri, Volume 37, New Madrid and Greene county, MO 

Meacham, 2004, Rogers county, OK

Paul L. Redfearn, Jr, col. # 31188, UMO, 1977, Greene county, MO

Ernest J. Palmer, col. # 56286, UMO, UMKC, 1953, McDonald county, MO

Ernest J. Palmer, col. # 56575, UMO, 1953, Newton county, MO

Leroy J. Korschgen, col. # 753, UMO, 1978, McDonald county, MO

Andrew L. Thomas, col. # 5, MO, UMO, 1998, Lawrence county, MO

John E. Duncan, col. # 448, IBE, 1987,  Clay county, MS

John R. MacDonald & Randy Warren, col. # 9882, IBE, MO, 1996, Winston county, MS

Michael Skinner, col # 6289, MO, 2008, Barton county, MO

Bill Summers, col # 10024, MO, UMO, Howell county, MO

Mississippi Natural Heritage Program. MS Literature

http://www.oklaenvirothon.org/pdfs/wildlife/oklahoma-endangered-species.pdf, page 12, Oklahoma counties

Additional resources:

A Manual Of Trees Of North America by Charles Sprague Sargent, page 233, Copyright 1965     

Allegheny Chiquapin Distribution: “In Arkansas, southern Missouri, and eastern Oklahoma replaced by Castanea ozarkensis Ashe.” 

 A Field Guide To Trees and Shrubs by George A. Petrides, page 265, Copyright 1958 

Speaking of Castanea ozarkensis Ashe:  “Height to 65′. Flowers June. Dry woods; s. Missouri and Oklahoma to Mississippi and Louisiana.”

Guide to Southern Trees, Ellwood S. Harrar, page 173, Copyright 1946, 1962  

A Field Guide To Trees and Shrubs, George A. Petrides, page 345, Copyright 1958   

About the Ozark chinquapin, Castanea ozarkensis Ashe: “Height 65′. Flowers June. Dry woods; s. Missouri and Oklahoma to Mississippi and Louisiana.” 

 Manual Of Southeastern Flora, John Kundall Small, Copyright 1933 

About Castanea ozarkensis Ashe. :   “Tree up to 20 m. tall, sometimes with several stems from a common base, the trunk sometimes 1 m. in diameter, the bark furrowed, Woods, rocky slopes, and stream-banks, Ozark-Ouachita Plateau and adj. Coastal Plain, Miss. To La., Okla., and S Mo. “

On Ozark chinquapin, Castanea ozarkensis, Ashe:  “This small tree is found on the Ozark-Ouachita plateau, in southern Missouri, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Mississippi, and on the adjacent coastal plain.”

Map research and generation by Leslie Bost, 2019. Contribution/research of GLO survey notes contributed by AJ Hendershott.  You may use any of these maps without formally requesting permission, please credit The Ozark Chinquapin Foundation, thank you. 

Old Range Maps click to enlarge photos

1941 map source: How To Know The Trees, H.E. Jaques, page 52, copyright 1941-1946

1907 map source: Hough, Romeyn Beck. Handbook Of The Northern States And Canada East Of The Rocky Mountains. Page 137, copyright 19071988 map source: Wilbur H. Duncan and Marion B. Duncan, Trees Of Southeastern United States, page 234, Copyright 1988